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The Job Landscape - An Overview

As with any marketplace the job market in Malaysia bustles with vendors and customers from different sectors of industry and commerce. These sectors include Agriculture, Applied Sciences, Banking, Finance & Insurance, Business & Commerce, Arts, Communications & the Media, Computing & IT, Construction & Development, Education & Social Sciences, Energy & Utilities, Healthcare & Medicine, Management & Consulting, Manufacturing & Industry, Public Administration & Services and Technology, Electrical & Electronics. These sectors provide jobs for the many professionals that each sector needs. Some of these sectors overlap as personnel from one sector could just as easily move into another and still perform the skills related to the same occupation; for example, the dentist could be running his own dental surgery or he could be taking charge of government- run clinics and be an officer in the public or government sector. Or an accountant could work in an accounting & audit firm or be the Manager of a bank.


In Malaysia Agriculture is still an important sector with crop production ranging from the growing of oil palm to pepper, rubber, rice, vegetables, etc, while in livestock production farms for cattle, sheep, pigs, poultry, fish, prawns etc continue to modernize while adhering to sustainable development practices. The Energy & Utilities sector has numerous companies in the oil and gas sector as well as hydroelectric power. There are companies set up for the extraction and production of natural resources such as oil, coal and natural gas. These are also processed into fuels such as gasoline and propane. Without energy industries would grind to a halt. Who gives us our supply of clean water? Who treats our sewage? Well, obviously this is a vital sector.

Applied Sciences

The field of Applied Sciences is relatively new. But with advances in science and technology scientists have found ways to apply say, biology to create products that help treat or prevent human diseases, or even to produce higher yielding crops or to modify them to remove a weak aspect. Such use of applied sciences extends to food science nutrition and medicine, to name a few.

Banking, Finance, Business and Commerce

In Banking and Finance, Business and Commerce, banks play a vital role in supplying the money that makes it possible for commerce and investments to thrive. Such money comes in the form of business or personal loans, hire purchase for vehicles and machines, home loans, etc. There are also investment banks that help value the worth of businesses for the purpose of pricing securities offerings or to set the value for mergers and acquisitions between companies. But how would businesses and individuals protect themselves as best they can from the risks of doing business or owning property? Insurance then comes to the rescue. In banking, a new growth area is Islamic Banking. Malaysia aims to lead as the world's Islamic banking and financial sectors.

Communication and Media

How do we keep abreast the latest news? Who helps fill our life with colour, beauty and glamour? There is no denying that Communications and the Media provide us with the means to broadcast, advertise, communicate, entertain, as well as provide manpower to publicize, hire and manage personnel required in all industries. People working in Arts related fields provide us with things that add beauty to our mundane lives, such as clothing and accessories, as well as much of what we look forward to in entertainment. Often computers and their applications feature prominently also in their fields.

Computing and IT

We would feel lost without our computers and the internet; the Computing and IT sector provides much of the computer hardware and software and the multitude of creative applications that we have come to rely upon. This is the world of processor chips and hard disks and every business, and service besides personal users, relies on ICT (Information Communications Technology) to run it.

Construction and Development

Another growth area is in Construction and Development; we need roads, super highways, houses, apartments, schools, hospitals, offices, factories, tunnels, sewers and more. These are the contractors and builders with their entire labour force. But all this cannot be done without the architects and engineers on the job as well. Property and real estate management are present in this sector to grow the value of and to keep tabs on the supply and demand of such properties that yield rent or investment value.


Where would we be without Education? Schools both public and private from primary to college levels and universities are tasked with imparting knowledge and skills. Education is a thriving sector. To move away from being just a knowledge-based economy, we need to equip our students with skills as well. Training on the job as well as continuing education are increasingly viewed as imperative in a workforce that helps give industries their competitive edge.

Social Sciences

The Social Sciences would support with promoting relationships, setting goals and helping with the well-being employees, through counselling, mediation, etc. At a broader level areas linked to the provision of law and order and issues related to human behaviour and public relations whether at the work place or in public would be relevant here. Even the field of politics and media overlap with that of social science.

Healthcare and Medicine

Healthcare & Medicine has grown to be another thriving sector. Aside from services that help prevent disease or to care for and save lives, which require a band of doctors, specialists and related health personnel, there are also the pharmaceuticals and medicines that need to be dispensed; think also of all the equipment present or necessary in hospitals from X-Ray machines, scans, MRI to various other diagnostic tools. All of this is big money; healthcare gets more expensive with time. This is where Health Insurance comes in. There exists a market for insurance packages - not just in health, of course, though health probably remains the most popular.

Management and Consulting

Many large organizations within industries require expertise to help run them. Sometimes these industries would look for the required personnel themselves, but at other times they could turn to the Management and Consulting field to seek advice on how best to fix their problems which could be related to a specific area of expertise or by way of recruiting management personnel suited to their needs.

Manufacturing and Industry

Manufacturing & Industry remains a thriving sector. Among goods manufactured are electrical & electronic products, transport equipment, agriculture & food processing, oil palm products, plastic products, wood products & furniture, machinery & equipment, to name a few. Such industries can also be classified under Technology and Electronic (where applicable) or even be part of the Agriculture or Applied sciences scene. The processes involved in manufacturing would require those with knowledge and skills in the science and engineering fields as well as those who know how to navigate the marketing, management, administration or advertising channels that are so pervasive in Manufacturing and Industry, all of which would keep the wheels of business turning.

Government Agencies

The government employs the greatest number of people in the country. These employees range from civil servants to bureaucrats and technocrats and include lawyers, teachers, engineers, botanists, scientists, administrators and managers, both at state and federal levels to implement and run the government's programmes and policies. Other than the Prime Minister's Department, there are also the Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Defence, Ministry of Education, Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Transport, etc.


Where there are the manufacturing industries there you will also find Technology being applied. The Technology sector would include industries such as aerospace, automotive, computer science, information technology, telecommunications, biotechnology, etc. In the world of the electrical and electronic industry there is the manufacture of diverse electrical goods ranging from the TV sets, to washing machines, refrigerators and many other household goods, while the electronics industry has to do with the development and applications of electronic circuits and devices.


Electronics concerns the generation, distribution, switching, storage and conversion of one form of energy into another, by way of wires, motors, batteries, etc. But often the distinction between the two is blurry. Besides, much of what is used in computers, office equipment, telecommunications and various industrial appliances are products from the electrical and electronic sector.

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